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  #11  
Old 05-22-2021, 12:50 PM
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Gallstones





Gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped sac on the right side of the abdomen. It is found just beneath the liver. It stores bile (a digestive fluid) made by the liver which helps in fat digestion. Bile is released into the small intestine through two ducts (tubes) – the cystic duct and common bile duct. Gallstones are hard, calcified structures inside the gall bladder formed due to crystallization of bile. They may also form when the gallbladder fails to empty normally.
Cholelithiasis is a term to describe stones in the gallbladder. Gallstones may pass into the cystic duct, common bile duct or pancreatic duct and are called choledocholithiasis.

Types
Gallstones vary in size from being as small as a grain or as big as a golf ball. There may be a single large stone or many smaller stones.
Cholesterol gallstones -- are the most common type consisting of more than 80% cholesterol by weight.
Pigment gallstones -- are made of bilirubin, a product of red blood cells destruction (haemolysis).
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  #12  
Old 05-22-2021, 12:55 PM
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Retinal detachment



The retina is a thin tissue which lines the inner aspect of the back of the eye ball. When light falls on the eye, it is focused by the optical apparatus of the eye onto the retina which converts it into electrical signals which are carried through the optic nerve to the brain. These signals are perceived and interpreted in the brain.

Causes
Retinal detachment is a condition in which the retina completely or partly detaches from its attachment to the underlying tissues in the eye. The primary cause is usually a retinal tear.

Vitreous, a clear gel like fluid which fills two thirds of the eye ball may sometimes exert a pull on the retina leading to holes or tears in the thin retinal tissue. If fluid from within the eye passes through this retinal tear, it can separate the retina from its underlying tissue and that causes retinal detachment. Congenital retinal detachment though rare, is not very uncommon. A premature newborn suffering from a condition called retinopathy of prematurity can soon develop retinal detachment after birth, if left untreated. Other conditions associated with retinal detachment in children include hereditary vitreoretinal disorders, malformations in the eye and retinal detachment following paediatric cataract surgery. In a few cases, retinal detachment is caused by uveitis and by Coats disease.
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  #13  
Old 05-22-2021, 01:07 PM
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Vitiligo


Vitiligo was originally known by the name of “Shweta kusht”, is a common skin disorder referred to as ‘white leprosy’ or ‘leucoderma’. Because of a limited understanding of vitiligo, people suffering from it often have low self-esteem and experience social isolation to some extent. Moreover, there are many misconceptions associated with vitiligo, e.g., it is contagious and that it has no effective treatment. Moreover, 1% of the global population suffers from vitiligo.

TYPES
Vitiligo can be classified as follows:
  • Generalized - This is the most familiar type of vitiligo in which macules are seen in numerous areas of the body.
  • Segmental - This is limited to a single area or side of the body such as feet or hands.
  • Mucosal - This is primarily observed in the body areas that contain mucous membranes such as the mouth or genitals.
  • Focal - This is a rare type of vitiligo. In this, the macules are restricted to a smaller part of the body and remain the same over a couple of years.
  • Universal - In this rare type, ~80% of the skin is devoid of pigments.
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  #14  
Old 05-22-2021, 02:04 PM
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Chikungunya


Chikungunya is a disease caused by mosquitoes. It is mostly prevalent in the Asian and African countries. However, incidences of this mosquito-borne disease have been found in some parts of Europe and America. The name “chikungunya” originates from Kimakonde language spoken by an ethnic group in in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. Meaning ‘contortion’, this word refers to the stooped posture of people experiencing severe joint or muscle pain. This is one of the major manifestations of chikungunya.

What is Chikungunya?
This is a virus that you catch from the bite of infected female mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The transmission of chikungunya generally occurs outdoors during the day, especially in the early morning and late afternoon hours, when these mosquitoes are most active. This viral infection is characterised by an abrupt onset of fever accompanied by severe muscle and joint pain. Other symptoms could be headache, nausea, fatigue and rash.

The onset of chikungunya occurs within 3-7 days of a mosquito bite. Though the condition mostly resolves on its own, this infection can be fatal for the elderly population and people with comorbid conditions. There is currently no cure or vaccine for the condition. The treatment is aimed at relief from symptoms like pain, swelling and fever.
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  #15  
Old 05-22-2021, 02:06 PM
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Dengue




Dengue, a mosquito-borne disease, is prevalent in areas with tropical and subtropical climate. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, this infection is common in more than 100 countries around the world. The estimate of this world body suggests that around 3 billion people live in dengue-prone areas. These include India and parts of South East Asia, China, Africa, Taiwan and Mexico among others. In 2019 alone, India saw more than 67,000 cases of dengue, as suggested by the figures released by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP). This report also reveals that 2017 was the worst year for India in terms of dengue with 1.88 lakh cases and 325 deaths.
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